Ethiopian and Constantinople Year Numbers

About the year 200 AD in Rome and Africa, Hippolytus of Rome and Julius Africanus declared 5500 years exactly occurred between the creation in Genesis and the birth of Christ based on the Greek Septuagint Bible.

Click here for discrepancies with the original Hebrew and "8 year Juggle" in birth year of Jesus.

Click here for Jerome's Commentary in 420 on Daniel's 70 weeks. He had just published the Latin Vulgate based on Hebrew removing a 1466 year discrepancy.

Around 400 an Egyptian monk called Annianus fixed the Alexandrian Era (Anno Mundi i.e. the year of the cosmos) the date of Adam in the 7th month on Sunday 25 March 5492 BC. The twelfth 532 year-cycle of this era began on 25 March AD 361, 4×19 years after the Era of Martyrs in AD 284. After the 6th century AD, the era was used by Egyptian Ethiopian and Eritrean chronologists with their 532 year dates for Easter. It placed the date of the Annunciation to Mary in the 5500th year Sunday 25 March 8 AD (note there is no year zero).

In Constantinople (modern day Istanbul) the Annunciation to Mary was seen as coming 9 years earlier on 25 March 2 BC, and 5500 years after Adam and Eve's fall from grace. Creation was dated to August 5509 BC, now 16 years earlier than in Ethiopia, possibly a statement in Book of Jubilees (a Greek Hebrew book dated to c.100 BC) that Adam lived seven years "agelessly".

In Constantinople this calendar lasted until the Turks took the city in 1453. The calendar was introduced into Serbia where it apparently lasted until 1881. The calendar was introduced into Kievan Rus and Russia about 988, lasting until December 1699 when under Emperor Peter the Great 1st January 7208 became 1st January 1700. The official Eastern Orthodox Church in Constantinople followed suit shortly afterwards in 1728.

Back to Ethiopia. On 7th January 2024 (their Christmas day), they celebrated the "2016th birth year" of Christ, now the 7516th year of Adam. Note, the Ethiopian celebration of the Annunciation, called ‘Bisrate Gebriel’, occurs on December 31 (Tahisas 22) of the Ethiopian Calendar. Even though the actual date of the feast comes 9 months earlier, the fathers of the church (Archbishop Diocese) moved the feast to one week before Lidit (Christmas) because it would otherwise fall within the great fast before Easter (Lent).

Five other countries outside the west, including China

  1. China
    Like *many countries in the east, although people follow the lunar calendar for birthdays and festivals, in government business the international "Gregorian" calendar is always used, with 1st January a public holiday. Introduced into China in 1912, and promoted extensively by Chairman Mao in 1949.
    *India came under British administration in the 1600s and direct rule in 1858, Vietnam under the French in early 1800s, Japan independently in 1873, Egypt in 1875, Thailand in 1889, Korea in 1896, Turkey in 1926.
  2. Thailand
    As mentioned, Thailand introduced the Gregorian calendar with 1st January in 1889, but dated it back to 543BC, traditionally the year Buddha died, reached parinibbana, his final "nirvana". Thus 1st January 2024 is 2567.
  3. Iran
    In Iran, the fiscal year starts on the Spring Equinox (20 or 21 March) i.e. Farvardin in Farsi, Aries-meaning "Ram" in Greek astrology, Chaitra in India's national calendar. Thus 20 March 2024 was Iran's New Year's Day 1402 AH (Year of "Hijri") the historic Flight of Mohammed from Mecca to Medina.
  4. Afghanistan
    In Afghanistan from 2011 to 2021, the fiscal year began on 1 Hamal (20 or 21 March) aligning with Iran's calendar. Following transfer of administration to the Taliban in September 2021 Afghanistan abandoned Iran's solar Hijri calendar, restarting the Lunar Hijri calendar on 1 Muharram 1444 AH (30 July 2022).
  5. Nepal
    New Year's day was celebrated on April 13 2024, in their year 2081. It was the first day of Baisakh, Chithirai in Tamil, the second month of India's solar calendar, Vaisakha in Sanskrit or Mesha-meaning "Ram" in Sanskrit with each solar (i.e. constellation-oriented) month varying between 29-32 days.

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** End of Report